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Senin, 20 April 2020

Latihan Soal SBMPTN TPA: Bahasa Inggris

tpa bahasa inggris
Petunjuk A Pilihlah satu jawaban yang paling tepat.
Petunjuk B Soal terdiri dari tiga bagian, yaitu pernyataan, kata sebab, dan alasan yang disusun berurutan.
Pilihlah:
                A. Jika pernyataan benar, alasan benar, dan keduanya menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat.
                B. Jika pernyataan benar dan alasan benar, tetapi keduanya tidak menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat.
                C. Jika pernyataan benar dan alasan salah.
                D. Jika pernyataan salah dan alasan benar.
                E. Jika pernyataan dan alasan keduanya salah.

Petunjuk C Pilihlah:
                A. Jika (1), (2), dan (3) yang benar.
                B. Jika (1) dan (3) yang benar.
                C. Jika (2) dan (4) yang benar.
                D. Jika hanya (4) yang benar
                E. Jika semuanya benar.
TES KEMAMPUAN & POTENSI AKADEMIK
Questions 1-3 are based on the following passage.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are group of highly inheritable behavioral disorder the pose major personal and public health concerns. Patients with ASDs have mild to severe communication Difficulties , repetitive behavior and social challenges. Such disorders significantly challenge an individual’s ability to conduct daily activities and function normally in society. Currently there are very few medication options that effectively treat ASDs.
Recognizing a need to better understand the biology that produces ASD symptoms, scientists at Duke-NUS and NN, Singapore, have identified a novel mechanism that potentially links abnormal brain development to the cause of ASDs. this new knowledge will help to improve the diagnosis and development of therapeutic interventions for ASDs. 
The study has shown how one brain-specific microRNA (miR-128) plays a key role in causing abnormal brain development. MicroRNAs are small molecules that regulate gene expression in the human body to ensure proper cellular functions. Although it was known that miR-128 is misregulated in some 30 patients with autism, what that meant and how it functioned was not known. 
The research team showed that miR-128 targets a protein called PCM1 that is critical to the cell division of neural precursor cell (NPCs). NPCs during early brain development have two fates - they either stay as NPCs and undergo self-renewal or become neurons through differentiation. The dysfunctional regulation of PCM1 by misregulated miR- 128 impairs brain development, which mu underlie brain size changes in people with ASDs. 
For the first time, the researchers have managed to show that miR-128 is a mechanism that regulated early neuronalbehavior during brain development. They believe that targeting this mechanism may be the answer to diagnose and treat ASDs that are caused by abnormal brain development.
This important study suggests a link between a key neurological disease gene and regulation of microRNAs in the brain. However, the researchers are just starting to understand how misregulated miR- 128 expression can damage our brain activities. Much more work needs to be done in this area.
(Diadaptasi dari https://www.duke-nus. edu.sg/news/explaining-autism-studyidentifies-novel-mechanism-causesabnormal-brain-development)
  1. What is the topic of the passage?
  2. A. A newmechanism that could links abnormal brain development to the cause of ASDs.
    B. A better understanding of biology that produce symptoms of ASD.
    C. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    D. The activities of the joint research team Duke-NUS and NNI Singapore.
    E. The link between a key neurological disease gene and microRNAs regulation in the brain.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “What is the topic of the passage?” (Apa topik dari teks tersebut?) Perhatikan pada baris ke-7 “to improve the diagnosis and development of therapeutic interventions for ASDs” yang artinya “memperbaiki diagnosis dan pengembangan terapi bedah untuk ASDs”. Jadi, jawaban yang paling benar adalah improving the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  3. The word impairs in line 41 means ....
  4. A. puts together
    B. harms
    C. slows down
    D. drops
    E. enhances
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “ The word impairs in line 13 means ....” (Kata impairs pada baris ke 13 berarti ....) Impairs artinya merusak. Perhatikan arti dari setiap pilihan jawaban, (A) puts together (menempatkan bersama- sama), (B) harms (merugikan), (C) slows down (memelankan), (D) drops (menurunkan), (E) enhances (mempertinggi). Dapat dilihat bahwa kata lain yang memiliki arti yang hampir sama adalah “harms" yang artinya merusak.
  5. What do the researchers expect to be able to do as a result of their findings?
  6. A. Cure people who have ASDs.
    B. Identify people who have ASDs.
    C. Develop new medications for ASDs.
    D. Stop abnormal brain development.
    E. Reverse brain size changes in people with ASDs.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “What do the researchers expect to be able to do as a result of their findings?” (Apa yang para peneliti harapkan dilakukan sebagai hasil dari penemuan mereka?). Perhatikan baris 13-14 11The dysfunctional regulation of PCM1 by misregulated miR-128 impairs brain development, which may underlie brain size changes in people with ASDs” (disfungsi dari PCM1 oleh disregulasi miR-128 merusak perkembangan otak, yang mungkin mendasari perubahan ukuran otak pada orang-orang ASDs). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa jawaban yang paling tepat adalah 11stop abnormal brain development”, yang artinya (menghentikan perkembangan otak abnormal).

    Questions 3-7 are based on the following passage
    Over the last two decades , the use of ICT has been an important topic in education. On the hand, studies have
    shown that ICT can enhance teaching and learning outcomes. For example, in science and mathematics education, scholars have documented that the use of ICT can improve students’ conceptual understanding, problem solving, and team working skills. Consequently, most curriculum documents state the importance of ICT and encourage school teachers to use them. However , teachers need to be specifically trained in order to integrate ICT in their teaching. 
    Schools are known to be resistant to innovation and change. However, the spread of ICT is beginning to affect how teachers teach. One of the current issue about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum. The curriculum documents provide arguments for introducing ICT in the school setting. Therefore, schools expect that graduated  from teacher education programs have a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT. However , this may not be the case because most current teachers’ preservice preparation, and subsequent in-service courses were designed by using traditional educational technology and setting. Thus, the participants in these courses are not familiar with the processes, interaction patterns, features and possibilities of teaching learning processes based on ICT.
    This issue becomes complicated because the students’ thinking skills are often weak. Also , they typically lack information literacy skills although they were born in or after 1982. In addition, they belong to the “Next Generation”. Furthermore , they are accustomed to operating in a digital environment for communication , information gathering, and analysis. The problem is that students do not have to understand how their uses of technology affect their habit of learning. 
    Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be direct process, but is the one asking for a careful , complex approach. First, a  needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at schools. Second , designers of teacher education programs should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their attitudes toward ICT integration into curriculum. Third, teacher education programs need to consider the two typical arguments that support the ICT use in schools.
    (Diadaptasi dari http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/498/229) 
  7. With the statement one of the current issues about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum. In line 21-23 , the author intends to ....
  8. A. emphasize the need for teachers with good literacy in technology
    B. explore the reasons for including ICT in the curriculum document
    C. explain the curriculum documents for ICT introduction in education
    D. argue that current teachers already have good knowledge of using ICT
    E. show that teacher education programs have been running expected ICT curriculum
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “With the statement ‘one of the current issues about the use of ICT is how it is integrated into the curriculum.’ In line 21-23, the author intends to ..." (Dengan pernyataan ‘salah satu masalah saat ini tentang penggunaan ICT adalah bagaimana mengintegrasikannya ke dalam kurikulum.’ pada baris ke-21-23, penulis bertujuan untuk ...), dapat dilihat pada baris ke-26-29 “Therefore, schools expect that graduated from teacher education programs have a reasonable knowledge of how to use ICT." Yang artinya (Oleh karena itu, sekolah berharap bahwa lulusan dari pendidikan program guru memiliki pengetahuan tentang bagaimana menggunakan ICT). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa baris ke-21-23 menekankan pentingnya guru dengan literasi yang baik dalam bidang teknologi (Emphasize the need for teachers with good literacy in technology ).
  9. The author’s idea of the relationship between the use of ICT and learning outcome is analogous with ....
  10. A.  vitamin - health
    B. speed - aeroplane
    C. harvest _ irrigation
    D. cellphone - crime
    E. books – intelligence
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: 11The author’s idea of the relationship between the use of ICT and learning outcome is analogous with ..." (Ide penulis tentang hubungan antara penggunaan ICT dan hasil belajar adalah sama dengan ...). Dapat dilihat pada baris 1 dan 2 “ On the one hand , studies have shown that ICT can enhance teaching and learning outcomes’’. Jadi , antara ICT dan hasil belajar sangat erat kaitannya sama halnya dengan vitamin dan kesehatan (vitamin- health)
  11. The assumption the author has about teacher education programs is that ...
  12. A. The programs have introduced a reasonable knowledge of howto use ICT.
    B. The programs have found out what ICT skill and knowledge the teachers need.
    C. The programs have given materials related to the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT.
    D. The programs were still designed in reference to traditional educational technology and setting.
    E. The programs have participants who are familiar with the processes of technology mediated educational transactions.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The assumption the author has about teacher education programs is that ..." (asumsi penulis tentang program pendidikan guru yaitu ...) Dapat dilihat pada baris ke-19 “second , designers of teacher education programs should know the preservice teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their attitudes toward ICT integration into curriculum", (kedua, perancang dari program pendidikan guru harus tahu persepsi guru praservis dari ICT dan sikap mereka terhadap integrasi ICT dalam kurikulum). Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa “program yang diberikan materinya harus berhubungan dengan persepsi guru praservis tentang ICT” (The programs have given materials related to the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ICT ).
  13. Which lines of the passage illustrate the ideal ICT teacher education programs most effectively?
  14. A. 15- 17
    B. 29 - 34
    C. 45 - 48
    D. 48 - 50
    E. 51 – 54
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which lines of the passage illustrate the ideal ICT teacher education programs most effectively?” (Baris mana dari teks tersebut yang menggambarkan program pendidikan guru TIK yang ideal dan paling efektif?) Dapat dilihat pada paragraf 4 dari baris 51-54 “Effective development of pre-service teachers’ ICT proficiency does not seem to be direct process, but is the one asking for a careful, complex approach. First, a needs assessment is important to find out what ICT skills and knowledge teachers need at schools. Second, designers of teacher education programs should know the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of I

    Questions 83-86 are based on the following passage.
    Climate change is changing our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways. Scientists warn that if we do not aggressively curb climate change now, the results will likely be disastrous.
    Carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the Sun’s heat and causing theplanet to warm up.
    Although local temperatures fluctuate naturally, over the past 50 years the av at the fastest rate in recorded history. Scientists say that unless we curb the emissions that cause climate change, average U.S. temperatures could be 3 to 9 degrees higher by the end of the century.
    Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance. But each year scientists learn more about how climate change is affecting the planet and our communities , and most agree that certain consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue.
    In addition to impacting our water resources, energy supply, transportation, agriculture, and ecosystems, the United States Global Change Research Program concludes that climate change also poses unique challenges to human health, for example, significant increases in the risk of illness and death related to extreme heat and waves are very likely. Some diseases transmitted by food, water, and insects are likely to increase. Certain groups, including children, the alderfly, and the poor, are most vulnerable to a range of climate-related health effects. These impacts will result in significant costs to our families and the economy. 
    Here is the good news: technologies exist today to make cars that run cleaner and burn less gas, modernize power plants and generate electricity from nonpolluting sources, and cut our electricity use through energy efficiency. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is tackling global warming on two main fronts - cutting pollution and expanding clean energy. Transitioning to a clean energy economy will bring new job and reduce air pollution. We cannot afford to wait.
    (Diadaptasi dari https://group.axa.com/newsroom/news/globaI-warmingerage global temperature has increased)
  15. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that ...
  16. A. Carbon dioxide and other pollutants blanket the atmosphere.
    B. Carbon dioxide and other pollutants collect the sun’s heat.
    C. The sun’s heat blankets the atmosphere.
    D. Carbon dioxide and other pollutants warmup the atmosphere.
    E. The atmosphere accumulates carbon dioxide and other pollutants.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that ..." (Dapat disimpulkan dari paragraf 2 bahwa ...). Perhatikan teks dalam paragraf 2 “Carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun’s heat and causing the planet to warm up.” (Karbon dioksida dan polutan pemanasan global lainnya mengumpul di atmosfer seperti selimut yang menebal, menjebak panas matahari dan menyebabkan bumi menghangat). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa “Karbon dioksida dan polutan lainnya menyelimuti atmosfer, (Carbon dioxide and other pollutants blanket the atmosphere).
  17. The sentences ‘Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance.’ In line 19-21, is closet in meaning to ...
  18. A. It is impossible to forecast the effects of climate change.
    B. It is intricate to understand the nature of climate change.
    C. It is hard to understand the full-scale effects of climate change.
    D. It is complicated to predict climate change due to its full-scale effect.
    E. It is difficult to precisely predict the effects of climate change due to its complex nature.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The sentences ‘Climate change is a complex phenomenon, and its full scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance/ In line 19-21 , is closest in meaning to ..." (Kalimat ‘Perubahan iklim merupakan fenomena yang kompleks, dan dampak sepenuhnya sulit untuk diprediksi jauh sebelumnya.’ pada baris ke-19-21, paling dekat maknanya dengan ... ). Makna terdekat yang artinya sama dengan kalimat tersebut yaitu “Sulit untuk memprediksikan perubahan iklim karena efeknya yang menyeluruh”. (It is complicated to predict climate change due to its full-scale effect )
  19. Which of the following obviously shows the author’s bias?
  20. A. Climate change is changing our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways.
    B. Climate change is a complex phenomenon,and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance.
    C. Significant increases in the risk of illness and death related to extreme heat and heat waves are very likely.
    D. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use.
    E. Transitioning to a clean energy economy will bring new jobs and reduce air pollution. We cannot afford to wait.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which of the following obviously shows the author’s bias?” (Manakah dari hal berikut yang jelas menunjukkan bias penulis?) Dapat dilihat pada paragraf pertama “Climate change is changing our economy, health, and communities in diverse ways”.
  21. The aut hor presents the unique challenges tos human health due to climate change by ... 
  22. A. discussing several examples
    B. pointing out several examples
    C. explaining a research program
    D. outlining a research program
    E. making a prediction
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The author presents the unique challenges to human health due to climate change by ..." (Penulis menyajikan tantangan unik bagi kesehatan manusia akibat perubahan iklim dengan ...). Dapat dilihat pada paragraf ke-5 “In addition to impacting our water resources, energy supply, transportation, agriculture, and ecosystems, the United States Global Change Research Program concludes that climate change also poses unique challenges to human health, for example, significant increases in the risk of illness and death related to extreme heat and waves are very likely. Some diseases transmitted by food, water,and insects are likely to increase", membahas beberapa contoh ( discussing several examples).

    Questions 87-90 are based on the following passage
    Despite its name, heartburn has nothing to do with the heart. Some of the symptoms, however, are similar to those of a heart attack or heart disease. Heartburn is an irritation of the esophagus that is caused by stomach acid, which can create a burning discomfort in the upper abdomen or below the breast bone.
    With gravity’s help, a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, keeps stomach acid the stomach. The LES is located where the esophagus meets the stomach - below the rib cage and slightly left of center. Normally it opens to allow food into the stomach or to permit belching, and the closes again. If, However, the LES opens too often or does not close tight enough, stomach acid can reflux , or seep, into the esophagus and cause the burning sensation. Occasional heartburn is not dangerous, but chronic heartburn or gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can sometimes lead to serious problems.
    The basic cause of heartburn is a lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, that does nottighten as itshould. Two excesses often contribute to this problem: too much food in the stomach (overeating) or too much pressure on the stomach (frequently from obesity, pregnancy, or constipation). Certain foods commonly relax the LES, including tomatoes, citrus fruits, garlic, onions, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, caffeinated product, and peppermint. Meals high in fats and oils (animal or vegetable) often lead to heartburn, as do certain medications. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn. Smoking, which relaxes the LES and stimulates stomach acid, is major contributor.
    How does heartburn happen? When you eat, food goes from your mouth down a tube called the esophagus into your stomach. In between the esophagus and the stomach is an opening called the lower esophageal sphincter. This muscular valve act like a door to let food into your stomach. It normally closes quickly behind the food to keep stomach acids – which break down the food - from backing up into your esophagus. 
    If that valve does not close all the way, stomach acid backs up, or refluxes,  into the esophagus. Stomach acid irritates the lining of the esophagus and causes a painful burning sensation. The feeling may be worse after bending over or when you  lie down.
    Certain foods and drinks - like tomato product, alcohol, citrus, coffee, and fatty or spicy foods - may be more likely to irritate the lower esophageal sphincter and make heartburn worse. Being overweight, eating big meals, wearing clothes that are tight around the waist and smoking also raise your risk for heartburn. Learning what triggers your heartburn can help you case the burn.
    (Diadaptasi dari http://www.gghospital.in/ blog/heartburn-cause-and-cure/)
  23. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses ....
  24. A. other factors causing heartburn
    B. kinds of food recommended
    C. overweight related to heartburn
    D. smoking effect on heartburn
    E. the best way to cure heartburn
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which of the following reflects the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?” (Manakah dari berikut ini yang mencerminkan sikap penulis terhadap topik dari bacaan tersebut?) Teks tersebut merupakan teks yang berisi informasi dan keterangan tentang heartburn (mulas). Jadi, topiknya adalah menginformasikan (informative) arti, gejala, dan faktor-faktor penyebab mulas. 
  25. Which of the following reflects the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?
  26. A. persuasive
    B. indifferent
    C. informative
    D. skeptical
    E. optimistic
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses ..." (Paragraf yang melanjutkan bacaan tersebut kemungkinan besar membahas ...). “The basic cause of heartburn is a lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, that does not tighten as it should. Two excesses often contribute to this problem: too much food in the stomach (overeating) or too much pressure on the stomach (frequently from Obesity, pregnancy, or constipation). Certain foods commonly relax the LES , including tomatoes, citrus fruits, garlic, onions, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, caffeinated product, and peppermint. Meals high in fats and oils (animal or vegetable) often lead to heartburn, as do certain medications. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn. Smoking, which relaxes the LES and stimulates stomach acid, is major contributor." Dengan membaca teks tersebut kita bisa mengetahui bahwa teks tersebut membahas tentang faktor-faktor lain yang menyebabkan rasa panas dalam perut (other factors causing heartburn)
  27. The passage can be summarized as follows ...
  28. A. Certain food and behaviors can trigger reflux that is the main cause heartburn.
    B. Stress and lack of sleep can increase acid production and can cause heartburn.
    C. Understanding causes, symptoms, and how heartburn occurs helps sufferers prepare for its attacks.
    D. The muscular valve in the abdomen works in a certain way that can lead to heartburn
    E. The feeling of heartburn can go from bad to worse when doing some physical activities
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The passage can be summarized as follows ..." (Bacaan tersebut bisa dirangkum sebagai berikut ...). Bacaan tersebut membahas tentang makanan dan perilaku tertentu yang dapat memicu refluks yang merupakan penyebab utama mulas ( Certain food and behaviors can trigger reflux that is the main cause heartburn).
  29. What will happen when the lower esophageal sphincter does not close after entry of food?
  30. A. The esophagus may close down.
    B. It may cause the sufferer to vomit.
    C. It may Irritate the lining of the esophagus.
    D. Stomach acid backs up into esophagus.
    E. The food it breaks down may open the esophagus.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “What will happen when the lower esophageal sphincter does not close after entry of food?" (Apa yang akan terjadi ketika sfingter esofagus bagian bawah tidak menutup setelah masuknya makanan?). Dapat dilihat pada paragraf 2 “Normally it opens to allowfoodintothestomachorto permit belching, and the closes again. If, however, the LES opens too often or does not close tight enough, stomach acid can reflux , or seep, into the esophagus and cause the burning sensation. Occasional heartburn is not dangerous, but chronic heartburn or gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can sometimes lead to serious problems (Normalnya terbuka untuk memungkinkan makanan ke perut atau untuk memungkinkan bersendawa, dan menutup lagi. Namun, jika LES akan membuka sering kali atau tidak menutup cukup ketat, asam lambung dapat merefluks, atau meresap, ke kerongkongan dan menyebabkan sensasi terbakar. mulas sesekali tidak berbahaya, tapi sakit maag kronis atau penyakit refluks gastro esofagus (GERD) kadang-kadang dapat menyebabkan masalah serius).

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