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Rabu, 08 April 2020

Tes Potensi Akademik Bahasa Inggris

soal tpa bahasa inggris
Petunjuk A Pilihlah satu jawaban yang paling tepat.
Petunjuk B Soal terdiri dari tiga bagian, yaitu pernyataan, kata sebab, dan alasan yang disusun berurutan.
Pilihlah:
                A. Jika pernyataan benar, alasan benar, dan keduanya menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat.
                B. Jika pernyataan benar dan alasan benar, tetapi keduanya tidak menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat.
                C. Jika pernyataan benar dan alasan salah.
                D. Jika pernyataan salah dan alasan benar.
                E. Jika pernyataan dan alasan keduanya salah.

Petunjuk C Pilihlah:
                A. Jika (1), (2), dan (3) yang benar.
                B. Jika (1) dan (3) yang benar.
                C. Jika (2) dan (4) yang benar.
                D. Jika hanya (4) yang benar
                E. Jika semuanya benar.
TES KEMAMPUAN & POTENSI AKADEMIK
Problems 76-78 are based on the following passage. Choose one option that best completes the blank spaces in the passages!
The present study sought to document the word reading and comprehension levels attained by children who were implanted by 5 year of age. It was hypothesized that the improved speech perception abilities acquired with cochlear implantation would promote phonological coding skills. (1) ...
Three subtests from diagnostic reading assessment batteries standardized on hearing children were administered to 181 children between 8 years 0 month and 9 years 11 months of age who had 4 to 6 years of implant experience. (2) ... it included a lexical decision task , a rhyme task and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

Over half of the children scored within the average range for their age compared with the normative data for hearing children. (3 ) ... they were higher nonverbal intelligence, higher family socio-economic status, female gender and later onset of deafness (between birth and 36 months). (Adapted from journal of ear and hearing )

  1. Which option best completes (1)?
  2. A. The finding showed that the hypothesis was accepted.
    B. The implantation was eventually shown to be successful.
    C. The following paragraph would discuss the findings of the study.
    D. The objective of the study was to see the subjects reading skills.
    E. It would also facilitate the acquisition of beginning reading skills.
    Pembahasan
    Paragraf pertama menjelaskan penelitian tentang level pemahaman dan kemampuan membaca yang dapatdicapai anak-anak 11word reading and comprehension levels attained by children" . Secara hipotesis, kemampuan tersebut akan menaikkan kemampuan ponologi “It was hypothesized ... would promote phonological coding skills." Kalimat tersebut cocok dilanjutkan dengan pilihan E, yaitu “ It would also facilitate the acquisition of beginning reading skills" (kemampuan tersebut juga akan memfasilitasi akuisisi kemampuan
  3. Which option best completes (2)?
  4. A. Likewise, the children were obliged to take a reading test.
    B. In addition a battery of processing measures was administered.
    C. However, standard measurement was applied to test the subjects.
    D. Consequently, the assessment was used to evaluate the reading skills.
    E. Instead, an interview consisting of many different tasks was conducted.
    Pembahasan
    Sebelum bagian yang kosong (2) terdapat kalimat “Three subtests from diagnostic reading assessment batteries ...” (Tiga subtesdari deretan penilaian diagnostik membaca ...) sehingga bagian rumpang (2) pasti akan membahas tentang uji diagnostik tersebut. Dengan demikian, kalimat yang cocok adalahpilihan B, yaitu “In addition a battery of processing measures was administered."
  5. Which option best completes (3)?
  6. A. The results were categorized based on the subject’s status.
    B. Data were collected on the basis of several different items.
    C. Reading competence was associated with three aspects.
    D. The subjects consisted of different age children.
    E. Findings showed various levels of reading skills.
    Pembahasan
    Sebelum bagian yang kosong (3) terdapat kalimat “ Over half of the children scored within the average range for their age ..." dan setelahnya terdapat kalimat “they were higher nonverbal intelligence, higher family socio-economy status, and later of deafness between birth and 36 months”. Oleh karena itu, kalimat yang tepat di antaranya adalah pilihan C, yaitu “reading competence was associated with three aspects" (kemampuan membaca memiliki asosiasi dengan 3 aspek).
    Problems 79-84 are based on the following passage
    These are amazing advances, but while all this scientific back-slapping is going on, the dark cloud on the horizon is the emerging Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the warning undercurrent that comes with it. At the time of writing at least 7000 people have been infected and half of those have died. The CDC in America also estimate that, because the level of reporting is so poor, the numbers can, in all likelihood , be doubled or even tripled. And because the rates of infection appear to be growing exponentially, tens of thousands, or even millions , might ultimately be affected. 
    To put the scale of the present situation into perspective, since the first recorded case of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo 38 years ago there have been fewer than 2,500 deaths documented in total. So this single present outbreak is already three times larger than the entire Ebola death toll ever. It’s also no longer just an African problem. The West has had its own wake-up call this week as the US and Spain, countries previously regarded as immune to the threat thanks to modern Medicine , have reported imported cases of the condition and , despite strict infection-control guidelines and practices, onward transmissions of Ebola on their home soil. 
    What is remarkable though is that, while Ebola is terrifying and dramatic in its impact when it causes an outbreak, it appears to be a relatively easy agent to fight. Experimental vaccines tested so far on animals have been impressively effective, protecting against even injection of the live Ebola virus. But because they are at a test stage, these agents, which will be critical if we’re to nip this outbreak in the bud,are nowhere near ready for mass production. Trials are only now getting underway of human versions of the vaccines in Oxford , UK, and the US. “Way too late,” many are saying, to prevent the inevitable. 
    So why is it that, nearly 40 years after Ebola first surfaced , the world finds itself in a state of panic, and up to ten thousand people are dead, owing to a bug that’s probably preventable thanks to scientific research done decades ago? The answer is that Ebola was regarded as someone else’s problem. It was a tropical disease of low importance and (presumedto be) constrained by geography and climate to a part of the world that held little economic interest to the rest of us. But therein lies a salutary lesson: because if even a tiny fraction - less than 1% - of what the present outbreak is now costing the world in terms of lost productivity, humanitarian aid and human lives lost had been spent 20 years ago to develop an Ebola vaccine, we probably wouldn’t be in this position now. It’s easy to dismiss tropical diseases as an issue that won’t affect the West, but the present situation is a warning shot across our bows that we ignore at our peril. (http://www.thenakedscientists.com/)

  7. How are the ideas in paragraphs 1 and 2 related?
  8. A. Paragraph 1 and 2 highlight the horror of the Ebola outbreak.
    B. Paragraph 1 contradicts the explanation of Ebola in paragraph 2.
    C. Paragraph 1 and 2 argue Ebola can be prevented with the latest vaccines.
    D. Paragraph 1 states the causes of Ebola and paragraph 2 explains the effects.
    E. Paragraph 1 defines an epidemic disease and paragraph 2 gives the examples.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “ How are the ideas in paragraphs 1 and 2 related?” (Bagaimana keterkaitan antara ide paragraf 1 dan 2?) Perhatikan paragraf 1: “emerging Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the warning undercurrent that comes with if (munculnya epidemik Ebola di Afrika Barat dan peringatan yan mengikutinya). Paragraf 2 menyatakan “ this single present outbreak is already three times larger than the entire Ebola death toll ever” (hanya dengan satu kali penularan sudah 3x lebih tinggi dari seluruh total kematian dari Ebola yang pernah ada). Maka, ide paragraf 1 dan 2 berkaitan dalam menyatakan bahaya penyakit ebola ( paragraph 1 and 2 highlight the horror of the Ebola outbreak).
  9. Which of the following is most relevant with the idea of Ebola outbreak described in the passage?
  10. A. Scientists are developing a new drug, but they are running out of fund.
    B. A mother does not comfort her crying son who merely wants her attention.
    C. A diabetic man ignored a slight wound on his toe, the he got infected horribly.
    D. Students choose not to study for an upcoming test since the test was bookopen.
    E. A recently launched book has caused a problem due to its controversial content.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which of the following is most relevant with the idea of Ebola outbreak described in the passage7 (Mana pernyataan yang paling relevan dengan deskripsi wabah Ebola dari teks?).
    Perhatikan paragraf 3 “while Ebola is terrifying and dramatic in its impact when it causes an outbreak it appears to be a relatively easy agent to fight” (ketika Ebola sudah menular ia memiliki pengaruh yang dramatis dan parah, namun ia muncul dari seorang agen yang mudah).
    Jadi, jawaban yang tepat, yaitu “ A diabetic man ignored a slight wound on his toe, then he got infecte horribly” (seorang penderita diabetes mengabaikan luka kecil di jarinya, kemudian dia terinfeksi secara mengerikan).
  11. The assumption the author has about the West is ...
  12. A. They act fast to prevent a disease only if it is important for them.
    B. Tropical disease are considered exotic and dangerous by the people.
    C. It is difficult to convince them that they need to send medical help to Africa.
    D. They are really interested in developing Ebola vaccines for mass production.
    E. They intentionally postpone developing Ebola vaccines because it is expensive.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The assumption the author has about the West is ...” (Asumsi penulis tentang orang Barat adalah ...). Perhatikan paragraf terakhir: “ It’s easy to dismiss tropical diseases as an issue that won’t affect the West, but the present situation is a warning ...”. Jadi, menurut penulis orang Barat merasa Ebola hanya isu yang mungkin tidak mengenai mereka sehingga mereka kurang mau bertindak cepat terhadap penanganan Ebola. Kalimat penjelasan tersebut cocok dengan pilihan A, yaitu “They act fast to prevent a disease only if it is important for them” .
  13. Which sentences most effectively illustrate the current Ebola prevalence?
  14. A. 2-4 of paragraph 1
    B. 1-2 of paragraph 2
    C. 2-3 of paragraph 3
    D. 1-2 of paragraph 4
    E. 4-5 of paragraph 5
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which sentences most effectively illustrate the current Ebola prevalence7 (Yang mana kalimat yang paling efektif untuk mengilustrasikan meratanya wabah Ebola saat ini?) Perhatikan paragraf keempat: “ nearly 40 years after Ebola first surfaced , the world finds itself in a state of panic, and up to ten thousand people are dead ...”. Pernyataan tersebut efektif karena langsung menyebutkan data korban yang terinfeksi. Jadi, ilustrasi paling efektif (most effectively illustrate) mengenai kemunculan ebola terbaru (current Ebola prevalence) ada di kalimat 1-2 di paragraf 4
  15. Paragraph in 3 implies that ...
  16. A. Ebola vaccines are very complex and time consuming to create.
    B. Ebola vaccines should have been tested on humans much earlier.
    C. It is inappropriate for Ebola vaccines to be safely tested on humans.
    D. The UK and US are countries that are in urgent needs of Ebola vaccines.
    E. Testing Ebola vaccines on animals takes many years before their use on humans.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Paragraph in 3 implies that ...” (Paragraf 3 mengimplikasikan bahwa ... ) Perhatikan paragraf 3 kalimat “ Trials are only now getting underway of human versions of the vaccines in Oxford, UK, and the US. “Way too late ,” ...many are saying”. Kalimat tersebut memiliki kata are only now yang dapat diartikan baru sekarang. Maka, paragraf 3 menyiratkan bahwa “ Ebola vaccines should have been tested on humans much earlier” (vaksin Ebola seharusnya sudah dites pada manusia sejak lama/sebelumnya.
  17. Which of the following best restates ideas of paragraph 4?
  18. A. Ebola has been a major problem for 40 years, so it will be over soon.
    B. Ebola only affects the countries with little economic and political power.
    C. The number of patients dying from Ebola will likely to remain the same.
    D. Scientists are developing vaccines that can be used for animals and humans.
    E. Had its vaccines been seriously created earlier, Ebola could have been cured.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Which of the following best restates ideas of paragraph 4?” (Dari pernyataan berikut mana yang paling tepat menyatakan kembali ide paragraf 4?). Salah satu ide pokok paragraf 4 adalah “ what the present outbreak is now costing the world in terms of lost productivity, humanitarian aid and human lives lost had been spent 20 years ago to develop an Ebola vaccine, we probably wouldn’t be in this position now” yang berarti bahwa seandainya vaksin Ebola sudah diciptakan sebelumnya, wabah ini tentu sudah bisa ditanggulangi. Maka, pernyataan paling tepat untuk menyampaikan lagi ide pokok paragraf 4 terdapat pada pilihan E, yaitu “ Had its vaccines been seriously created earlier, Ebola could have been cured' (jika vaksin lebih dulu diciptakan dengan serius, Ebola mungkin dapat disembuhkan).
    Questions 85-90 are based on the following passage.
    As spring arrives, albeit quite late this year for many of us, we notice the changing of seasons by the weather, but also by a host of natural events. Depending on where you live, the crocuses may poke through the snow the killdeer may be back, or the cherry trees may bloom. There is an orderly sequence of events that seem to occur, with various spring flowers appearing in order, red maple buds bursting into new leaves, or the old lilac by the barn scenting the air. This seasonal cycle of natural phenomena is called phenology. Global climate change appears to be interfering with the phenology of many species, at the very heart of species interactions. 
    In temperate regions like the northern half of the United States , there is comparatively little biological activity in winter. Most plants are dormant , and so are the insects feeding on them. In turn , animals that rely on these Insects , such as bats and birds, are hibernating or spending the cold months in more southerly locations. Ectotherms like reptiles and amphibians, which take their body warmth from their environment , also have active phases tied to the seasons. This long winter period constrains all the growing, breeding, and dispersing activities that plants and animals do to a short favorable window. That’s what makes spring so vibrant, with plants flowering and putting on new growth, insects emerging and breeding, and birds flying back to take advantage of this short-lived bounty. The onsets of each of these activities add up to so many phenological markers. 
    Different organisms respond to different cues to initiate seasonal activities. Many plants will start growing leaves again after a set period of dormancy, which very roughly dictates the leaf-out window. Cue that more precisely determine when the buds break can be soil temperature, air temperature, or water availability. Similarly, temperature cues can promote the beginning of insect activity. Day length itself can be the operative trigger for some seasonal events. It is only when there are a sufficient number of daylight hours that reproductive hormones will be produced in many bird species. 
    The most energy-demanding period in the life of most animals is when they reproduce. For that reason , it is to their advantage to coincide breeding (and for many, the raising of young) during a period when food is most abundant. Caterpillars should hatch just as the young tender leaves of oak tree emerge, before they harden and become less nutritious. Breeding songbirds need to time the hatching of their young just during that peak in caterpillar activity, so they can take advantage of this rich source of protein to feed their offspring. Many species have evolved to exploit peaks in resource availability, so all these seemingly independent phenological events are indeed part of a complex web of precise interactions. Disruptions in seasonal events can have profound effects on ecosystems. (http://environment.about.com/)
  19. The author’s bias regarding spring phenology is that ...
  20. A. Spring arrives late.
    B. Spring is so enthusiastic.
    C. Various spring flowers appear in order.
    D. Birds are flying back to take advantage of short-lived bounty.
    E. Many species have evolved to exploit peaks in resource availability
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The author’s bias regarding spring phenology is that ...” (Pernyataan berbentuk opini penulis tentang spring phenology adalah ...). Perhatikan paragraf 4: penulis berpendapat bahwa banyak spesies berubah untuk mengeksploitasi ketersediaan sumber makanan yang melimpah sehingga semua kejadian fenologi yang tampak independen merupakan bagian dari hubungan kompleks da interaksi berharga. Pernyataan dengan kata seemingly adalah pernyataan berbentuk bias/opinion/prejudice dari penulis. Dengan demikian , jawaban yang tepat ada di pilihan E , yaitu “Many species have evolved to exploit peaks in resource availability "
  21. In presenting the ideas, the author starts by ...
  22. A. Showing evidence of why scientists are concerned with phenology.
    B. Describing the natural characteristics and definition of phenology.
    C. Stating the needs for triggering phenological events.
    D. Arguing how climate change is affecting phenology.
    E. Referring to global climate change.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “In presenting the ideas, the author starts by..." (Dalam menyampaikan idenya, penulis memulai dengan ...). Perhatikan paragraf 1 dalam kalimat “As spring arrives ... we notice the changing of seasons by the weather, but also by a host of natural events ..." dan " This seasonal cycle of natural phenomena is called phenology" . Jadi , penulis menyajikan idenya dimulai dengan memberi gambaran tentang sifat alami dari musim semi yang dilanjutkan dengan definisi dari phenology
  23. The author’s attitude towards sensational cycle of natural events is ....
  24. A. assertive
    B. objective
    C. optimistic
    D. supportive
    E. sympathetic
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The author’s attitude towards sensational cycle of natural events is ...” (Sikap penulis terhadap siklus alam yang sensasional ini adalah ....). Sikap/emosi penulis ini dapat dilihat dari teks yang hanya menjelaskan peristiwa tersebut tanpa adanya kontradiksi. Dengan demikian, sikap penulis adalah objektif (objective). Jawaban: B
  25. The paragraph following the passage most likely deals with ...
  26. A. The interference of global climate change to species phenology.
    B. Reasons for scientists to be concerned with phenology.
    C. Processes in climate change to affect phenology.
    D. The seasonal cycle of natural phenomena.
    E. Factors triggering phenological events
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The paragraph following the passage most likely deals with ...” (Paragraf yang mengikuti/melanjutkan teks tersebut kemungkinan akan menguraikan tentang ...). Soal merupakan bentukan pertanyaan peralihan. Untuk mengetahui paragraf selanjutnya dapat kita telusuri kalimat  sebelumnya. Perhatikan paragraf 1: “Global climate change appears to be interfering with  the phenology of many species" dan dalam kalimat penutup paragraf 4 “Disruptions in seasonal events can have profound effects on ecosystems" (gangguan pada peristiwa musiman ini akan memiliki efek sangat  besar bagi ekosistem). Maka, paragraf yang mengikuti teks akan menguraikan tentang  “The interference of global climate change to species phenology’’ (gangguan perubahan iklim dunia pada spesies fenologi). Jawaban: A
  27. The ideas in the passage may be best summarized that ...
  28. A. In winter plants are dormant and animals are hibernating.
    B. Seasons change as the natural events do following them.
    C. Winter constrains plants and animals from growing and breeding.
    D. Different organisms respond to different cues for seasonal activities.
    E. Phenological events represent a complex chain of natural interactions.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “The ideas in the passage may be best summarized that ...” (Ide dalam teks dapat disimpulkan bahwa ...). Kesimpulan dari ide dalam teks ini adalah “Phenological events represent a complex chain of natural interactions” (peristiwa fenologi mewakili sebuah rantai kompleks dari interaksi alam)
  29. Based on the passage, it can be hypothesized that reproductive hormones in many birds’ species will not be produced if ...
  30. A. There is an inadequate number of daylight hours.
    B. Seasons as well as local weather change a bit.
    C. Those feeding on insects are hibernating.
    D. No orderly sequence of event occur.
    E. Global climate change happens.
    Pembahasan
    Kalimat pertanyaan: “Based on the passage, it can be hypothesized that reproductive hormones in many birds’ species will not be produced if ..." . Perhatikan paragraf ketiga: “It is only when there are a sufficient number of daylight hours that reproductive hormones will be produced in many bird species” (hormon reproduksi dari banyak spesies burung akan terbentuk hanya jika terdapat jumlah waktu siang yang cukup). Jadi, dapat diambil hipotesis bahwa jika tidak ada jumlah waktu siang yang cukup, maka hormon reproduksi pada banyak spesies burung tidak akan terbentuk (reproductive hormones in many birds’ species will not be produced if ... there is an inadequate number of daylight hours).

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